These questions are addressed in a new study which takes a decolonial perspective on teacher professional development (TPD) in the region. This work is distinctive for drawing primarily (if not exclusively) on publications by African-based researchers, including often-overlooked sources of evidence such as national journals and doctoral research theses conducted by teacher educators and others involved in the daily life of schools. The decolonial analysis is organised around the three dimensions of coloniality identified by Ndlovu-Gatsheni (2013), namely, power, knowledge and being. The study was commissioned by the British Council through the Mastercard Foundation’s Secondary Teachers English Language Improvement Rwanda (STELIR) programme, and involved a collaboration between researchers in Ethiopia, Ghana, Rwanda, South Africa and Tanzania and the UK, led by a team at the University of Bristol’s Centre for Comparative and International Research in Education (CIRE).